China is among the oldest countries of the world.China celebrates 221 BCE as its founding year,( At this time Qin Shi Huang (秦始皇) became China’s first emperor).China became a republic in 1912 and China people’s republic was found in 1949.
China is the fourth largest county with 9,596,960 area sq.km has 23 provinces. (
provinces ordered by land area.
Capital cities of the provinces have also been included for reference.
• Area: 278,457 square miles (721,200 sq km)
• Capital: Xining
• Area: 187,260 square miles (485,000 sq km)
• Capital: Chengdu
• Area: 175,406 square miles (454,300 sq km)
• Capital: Lanzhou
• Area: 175,290 square miles (454,000 sq km)
• Capital: Harbin
• Area: 154,124 square miles (394,000 sq km)
• Capital: Kunming
• Area: 81,081 square miles (210,000 sq km)
• Capital: Changsha
• Area: 79,382 square miles (205,600 sq km)
• Capital: Xi’an
• Area: 72,471 square miles (187,700 sq km)
• Capital: Shijiazhuang
• Area: 72,355 square miles (187,400 sq km)
• Capital: Changchun
• Area: 71,776 square miles (185,900 sq km)
• Capital: Wuhan
• Area: 69,498 square miles (180,000 sq km)
• Capital: Guangzhou
• Area: 67,953 square miles (176,000 sq km)
• Capital: Guiyang
• Area: 64,479 square miles (167,000 sq km)
• Capital: Nanchang
• Area: 64,479 square miles (167,000 sq km)
• Capital: Zhengzhou
• Area: 60,347 square miles (156,300 sq km)
• Capital: Taiyuan
• Area: 59,382 square miles (153,800 sq km)
• Capital: Jinan
• Area: 56,332 square miles (145,900 sq km)
• Capital: Shenyang
• Area: 53,938 square miles (139,700 sq km)
• Capital: Hefei
• Area: 46,834 square miles (121,300 sq km)
• Capital: Fuzhou
• Area: 39,614 square miles (102,600 sq km)
• Capital: Nanjing
• Area: 39,382 square miles (102,000 sq km)
• Capital: Nanjing
• Area: 13,738 square miles (35,581 sq km)
• Capital: Taipei
• Area: 13,127 square miles (34,000 sq km)
• Capital: Haikuo
The Chinese flag is red with a large yellow five-pointed star and a four smaller yellow five-pointed stars(arranged in vertical arc toward the middle of the flag)
|Name||Wǔ Xīng Hóng Qí (“Five-star Red Flag”)|
|Use||Civil and state flag, civil and state ensign|
|Adopted||September 27, 1949|
|A large golden star within an arc of four smaller golden stars, in the canton, on a field of red.
Wonders of China
China in the world largest populous country with 1.375 billion (2013).Occupying most of East Asia,China’s geography is highly diverse, with hills, plains, and river deltas in the east and deserts, high plateaus, and mountains in the west.Its shape on map is like a rooster It reaches Mohe in Heilong jiang Province as its northern end, Zengmu Ansha (or James Shoal) to the south, Pamirs to the west, and expands to the eastern border at the conjunction of the Heilongjiang (Amur) River and the Wusuli (Ussuri) River, spanning about 50 degrees of latitude and 62 degrees of longitude. China is bordered by 14 countries — Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Burma, India, Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakstan, Mongolia, and Russia. Marine-side neighbors include eight countries — North Korea, Korea, Japan, Philippines, Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam.The vast land expanses of China include plateaus, plains, basins, foothills, and mountains. Defining rugged plateaus, foothills and mountains as mountainous, they occupy nearly two-thirds of the land, higher in the West and lower in the East like a three-step ladder.
The highest step of the typical ‘ladder topography’ is formed by the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau at the average height of over 4,000 meters, with the Kunlunshan range, Qilianshan range and Hengduan mountain chain as the division between this step and the second one. The highest peak in the world, Everest, at 8844.43 meters high is known as ‘the Roof of the World’.
On the second step are large basins and plateaus, most of which are 1,000 – 2,000 meters high. The Daxing’an, Taihang, Wu and Xuefeng Mountains divide this step and the next lower one. Plateaus including Inner Mongolian, Loess, Yungui Plateaus, and basins such as Tarim, Junggar, and Sichuan Basins are situated here.
The third step, abundant in broad plains, is dotted with the foothills and lower mountains, with altitudes of over 500 meters. Here are located famous plains: the Northeast, the North China, and the Middle-Lower Yangtze Plains, neighboring with each other from north to south. These well-cultivated and fertile lands produce abundant crops.
Although the physical features are as described, people tend to divide China into four regions, that is, the North, South, Northwest and the Qinghai-Tibetan areas. Because of geographical differences, residents of each region have distinctive life styles and customs.The North and South regions are located in the Eastern monsoon area and are divided by the Qin Mountains-Huai River. Nearly 95 percent of the Chinese population lives here. The other two regions, the Northwest and Qinghai-Tibetan regions that occupy 55 percent of the land, have fewer people, although most of the ethnic groups cluster there.
Rivers and Lakes
China has numerous rivers and lakes. According to statistics, more than 50,000 rivers have drainage areas that exceed 100 square kilometers; more than 1,500 exceed 1,000 square kilometers. These rivers can also be classified as exterior and interior rivers. The Yangtze, the longest in China and even in Asia, is the third-longest in the world. The Yellow River, ‘Mother River of the Chinese People’, is just behind the Yangtze, both flowing into the Pacific Ocean. The Yarlung Zangbo River belongs to the Indian Ocean water system, and the Irtysh River to the Arctic Ocean. On the other side, the interior rivers drain less area than the exterior ones.Lakes are also important. The areas with the most lakes are the Middle-Lower Yangtze Plain and Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Many lakes in the northwest are salty. Qinghai Lake, a beautiful natural salt-water lake, is the largest. In southeast China, most lakes are fresh water. Poyang Lake, Dongting Lake , and Taihu Lake are all fresh water lakes.
These provide China with precious resources such as aquatic products, petroleum, natural gas, mines and renewable resources including tide power.
China has large areas of mountainous land, about two-thirds of the country. The ranges mainly run from east to west and from northeast to southwest. Among these mountains, some reach to the sky, and others are lower with charming scenery. Out of the mountains throughout the world at the altitude of over 7,000 meters, over 50 stand in China. To the east in China, lower mountains like Mt. Taishan, Mt. Huashan, and Mt. Emeishan, also display their unique beauty.The great wall of china,Forbidden city,Terracotta Army,The Bund,Summer palace,Temple of heaven e.t.c.
Natural resources and food
China has a large and varied stock of natural resources, including many minerals. The country has about 12 percent of the world’s mineral resources, with only the United States and Russia possessing larger proportions. There are sizeable reserves of coal, iron, tin, copper, lead, zinc, molybdenum, tungsten, mercury, graphite, antimony, magnesite,and others.Noodles are a basic staple food in China. Chinese people love noodles very much, especially in the north. Chinese noodles are generally made from wheat flour, rice flour, or mung bean starch. Noodles are often served in soup, or stir-fried with meat, eggs, or vegetables.
Religion,Tradition and language
The major religions are Taoism,Confucianism, Islam and Christianity. Being brought into China 2,000 years ago, it was gradually widely accepted by most Chinese people and developed into three sections, namely the Han, Tibetan and Southern Buddhism.The Chinese has different customs and traditions of its people vary by geography and ethnicity.They represent 56 ethnic minority groups. The largest group is the Han Chinese, with about 900 million people. Other groups include the Tibetans, the Mongols, the Manchus, the Naxi, and the Hezhen, which is smallest group, with fewer than 2,000 people. The languages of China are the languages that are spoken by China’s 56 recognized ethnic groups. The predominant language in China, which is divided into seven major dialect groups, is known as Hanyu (simplified Chinese: 汉语; traditional Chinese: 漢語; pinyin: Hànyǔ). and its study is considered a distinct academic discipline in China. Hanyu, or Han language, spans eight primary dialect groups, that differ from each other morphologically and phonetically to such a degree that dialects from different regions can often be mutually unintelligible. The languages most studied and supported by the state includeChinese, Mongolian, Tibetan, Uyghur and Zhuang. China has 297 living languages according to Ethnologue.
Standard Chinese (known in China as Putonghua), a form of Mandarin Chinese, is the official national spoken language for the mainland and serves as a lingua franca within the Mandarin-speaking regions (and, to a lesser extent, across the other regions of mainland China). Several other autonomous regions have additional official languages. For example, Tibetan has official status within the Tibet Autonomous Region, and Mongolian has official status within Inner Mongolia. Language laws of China do not apply to either Hong Kong or Macau, which have different official languages (Cantonese, English andPortuguese) than the mainland.